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Tea Brewing with a Gaiwan

Gaiwan Tea Brewing: Unveiling the Secrets of Chinese Tea Mastery

Feb 03, 2024

Shanika Dasanayaka

Tea is not merely a botanical product; it embodies the fusion of diverse cultures, flavors, and distinct production techniques, reflective of each tea-growing nation. Not all teas can be brewed using the same methods. Do you believe that different types of tea require specific brewing techniques?

Various nations have developed their own unique tea brewing equipment over centuries, drawing inspiration from their rich tea cultures. This diversity has enriched the art of tea-making.

In today's world, while tea bags offer convenience, true tea enthusiasts understand the beauty of brewing loose tea with infusers. Among the many types of infusers, the Chinese loose tea infusing tool known as the Gaiwan holds a special place in tea culture.

Let's delve deeper into what a Gaiwan is and discover the exquisite experience it offers when brewing a cup of tea.

The Gaiwan: A Tea Brewing Essential

The Gaiwan is a lidded, handle-less bowl originally introduced by the Chinese for steeping and consumption of tea leaves. Before the Ming dynasty, tea in China was brewed and consumed using the same vessel, resulting in a bitter taste due to over-brewing. To overcome this issue, a specialized tea set consisting of a bowl, lid, and saucer was introduced during the Ming dynasty, known as the Gaiwan or Zhong in Chinese.

The design of the Gaiwan was innovative, providing ample space for tea leaves, the right water capacity for infusion, and comfortable handling. Typically, the bowl can hold between 100-280ml of water, sufficient for one large teacup or three smaller ones.

Gaiwans are commonly crafted from porcelain, clay, or glass. In ancient Chinese tea culture, the Gaiwan, as tea-making and drinking equipment, got huge recognition. As a result, the traditional arts were incorporated into the Gaiwans as paintings in the tea set. Most of the time, the paintings resembled dragons to manifest the pride of tea, and the colors used for the paintings were silver and gold to represent the prestige value of tea. 

Guidelines for Choosing the Right Gaiwan 

You will have to consider several things when selecting the correct Gaiwan. 

  1. The type of tea:The type of tea you plan to brew will determine the volume, material, color, and shape of the Gaiwan. Gaiwans are ideally suited for delicate teas with nuanced flavors and aromas, such as green tea, oolong tea, and white tea. However, they can also be used for black tea and other herbal varieties.
  2. Size and shape: The Gaiwan should be a comfortable size to hold in your hands, ensuring ease of use. It's important to avoid the extremes of being too small or too large, as they can make handling the utensil difficult.
  3. Structure of the Gaiwan: Consider selecting a glazed Gaiwan because its non-porous structure allows it to showcase the true aroma and taste of the tea.
  4. Porcelain Thickness: A thicker Gaiwan will retain heat for a longer duration, while a thinner one will heat up quickly but may cool down faster during subsequent rounds of steeping.

Gaiwan Brewing Basics

Brewing tea in a Gaiwan involves a few fundamental steps.

  1. Begin by rinsing the Gaiwan with boiling water to remove any residual tea aromas and residues, preheating the Gaiwan, and preventing a sudden drop in water temperature during steeping.
  2. Add an appropriate amount of tea leaves to the Gaiwan, considering the number of guests sharing the tea.
  3. Pour boiling water into the Gaiwan, ensuring that the water level does not exceed the height covered by the lid. Overflowing can result in hot water spilling over the lid, making it uncomfortable to handle.
  4. Retain the infusion without discarding it; typically, the brewing process should be repeated 2-3 times.
  5. Familiarize yourself with different gripping techniques when handling the Gaiwan. You can use overhand or underhand grip methods for pouring the tea or even drink directly from the Gaiwan.

How To Use a Gaiwan?

Most tea preparation techniques share similarities with Gaiwan tea brewing. Let's explore each step:

  1. Start by rinsing the Gaiwan with hot water to warm and cleanse it before brewing the tea.
  2. Choose the appropriate type of tea and measure it according to your taste preferences. The quantity will depend on the Gaiwan's size and the recommended serving size, which may be indicated on the loose tea packaging.
  3. Rinse the tea leaves promptly after placing them in the Gaiwan. This quick rinse releases the initial aroma and begins to unfurl the tea leaves.
  4. Infuse the tea by pouring hot water over it. After adding water, promptly close the lid and allow the tea particles to steep in the water. The steeping time varies based on the type of tea, leaf size, and the amount of tea used. Refer to the brewing instructions for specific recommendations regarding temperature and time.
  5. When the tea is ready, either pour it into your teacup using the gripping techniques or directly sip it from the Gaiwan. If the tea leaves retain their flavor, aroma, and color, you can re-infuse them 2-3 times, as is typical with most teas.

Gaiwan Vs. Other Brewing Methods

Comparing Gaiwan with other brewing methods, the most common alternative is using teapots. Let's examine the differences:

  1. Gaiwan typically requires a larger amount of tea leaves since they are infused 2-3 times. It also requires less water because Gaiwans are relatively small. In contrast, teapots require less tea, more water, and longer steeping times due to their larger size.
  2. Brewing tea with a Gaiwan involves a few simple steps but requires patience and practice in handling the delicate bowl, lid, and saucer. It demands careful attention due to its short steeping time. Teapot brewing, on the other hand, is more convenient, often featuring built-in infusers. It doesn't necessitate expertise or practice to make a perfect teacup.
  3. Gaiwans are recommended for brewing lighter teas like green tea, oolong tea, and white tea, while teapots excel with teas known for their body and boldness, such as black tea. The high heat retention of teapots contributes to their suitability for these teas.
  4. Oxidation plays a role in the taste of tea, with black and oolong teas benefiting from it, while green and white teas do not. Gaiwans, being non-porous, prevent contact with natural air during brewing, inhibiting oxidation. In contrast, teapots' porous nature allows for oxidation, enhancing the taste of the brew.
  5. Gaiwan brewing is ideal for small gatherings or individual consumption and is not suited for larger, time-consuming events. Teapot brewing is better for preparing larger quantities of tea and is commonly used for elaborate gatherings with multiple food pairing options.


The Gaiwan, a handle-less lidded bowl introduced by the Chinese centuries ago, revolutionized tea brewing for individuals or small gatherings. Its design was carefully crafted to accommodate tea leaves, ensure optimal water infusion, and offer comfort in handling. When choosing the right Gaiwan, factors such as tea type, size, shape, structure, and porcelain thickness should be considered.

Brewing tea in a Gaiwan involves essential steps like rinsing, measuring, adding water, and employing various gripping techniques. While it may not be overly complex, it requires attention to detail and practice.

Comparatively, Gaiwan brewing offers a unique experience. It adds a touch of adventure to your tea journey, making it an excellent choice for tea enthusiasts seeking a novel way to prepare their favorite brew.

Mastering the art of making tea with a Gaiwan may require practice, but the process is both fun and rewarding. Who better to embark on this adventure than a true tea lover, eager to brew their own teacup with a Gaiwan?

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